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Covert United States foreign regime change actions

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

Covert United States foreign regime change actions

1949 Syrian coup d'état

1953 Iranian coup d'état

1954 Guatemalan coup d'état

1959 Tibetan uprising

1961 Cuba, Bay of Pigs Invasion

1963 South Vietnamese coup

1964 Brazilian coup d'état

1973 Chilean coup d'état

1976 Argentine coup d'état

1979–89 Afghanistan, Operation Cyclone

1980 Turkish coup d'état

1981–87 Nicaragua, Contras

2013- Syria

 

History of U.S. expansion and influence

Foreign policy

Military history

Timeline of military operations

List of wars

List of bases

Manifest destiny

Non-interventionism

Overseas interventions

Pax Americana

America's Backyard

Territorial acquisitions

 

The United States has been involved in and assisted in the overthrow of foreign governments (more recently termed "regime change ") without the overt use of U.S. military force. Often, such operations are tasked to the Central Intelligence Agency(CIA).

Regime change has been attempted through direct involvement of U.S. operatives, the funding and training of insurgency groups within these countries, anti-regime propaganda campaigns, coups d'état, and other activities usually conducted as operations by the CIA.These actions were sometimes accompanied by by direct military action, such as following the U.S. invasion of Panamain 1989 and the U.S.-led military invasion of Iraq

in 2003.Some argue that non-transparent United States governmentagencies working in secret sometimes mislead or do not fully implement the decisions of elected civilian leaders and that this has been an important component of many such operations,[1]

Some contend that the U.S. has supported more coups against democracies that it perceived as communist, becoming communist, or pro-communist.

 

1 Prior to Cold War

1.1 Russia

 

2 During the Cold War

2.1 Communist states 1944–89

2.2 Syria 1949

2.3 Iran 1953

2.4 Guatemala 1954

2.5 Tibet 1955–70s

2.6 Indonesia 1958

2.7 Cuba 1959

2.8 Iraq 1960–63

2.9 Democratic Republic of the Congo 1960–65

2.10 Dominican Republic 1961

2.11 South Vietnam 1963

2.12 Brazil 1964

2.13 Ghana 1966

2.14 Chile 1970–73

2.15 Argentina 1976

2.16 Afghanistan 1979–89

2.17 Turkey 1980

2.18 Poland 1980–89

2.19 Nicaragua 1981–90

2.19.1 Destablization through CIA assets

2.19.2 Arming the Contras

3 Since the end of the Cold War

3.1 Iraq 1992–96

3.2 Venezuela 2002

3.3 Iraq 2002–03

3.4 Iran 2005–present

3.5 Somalia 2006–07

3.6 Syria 2012–present

 

Prior to Cold War

 

Russia

Main article:

Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War U.S. troops in Vladivostok, August 1918

The Bolshevik revolution of 1917 was met with hostility from President Wilson's administration.

After withdrawing funding for Russia and opposing a British and French plan to include the

Bolsheviks as allies against Germany in 1918, the United States extended its maritime blockade of Germany to include Soviet Russia and began covertly supporting

Russian opposition factions.[2][3]

In 1918, the Allied powers, including the United States, began to supplement their covert efforts with a military interventionin the Russian Civil War. The U.S. sent 13,000 troops to the Russian port cities of Vladivostokand Archangelsk.[4][5]

This intervention would not end until 1920 when it became clear that Lenin's forces were defeating the loose anti-Bolshevik White Russian movement.

 

During the Cold War

 

Communist states 1944–89

 

The United States supported resistance movements and dissidents in the communist regimes of Eastern Europeand the Soviet Union during the Cold War. One example is the

counterespionage operations following the discovery of the Farewell dossier which some argue contributed to the fall of the Soviet regime.[6][7]

 

Syria 1949

March 1949 Syrian coup d'état Syria became an independent republic in 1946, but the March 1949 Syrian coup d'état, led by Army Chief of Staff Husni al-Za'im, ended the initial period of civilian rule. Za'im met at least six times with CIA operatives in the months prior to the coup to discuss his plan to seize power. Za'im requested American funding or personnel, but it is not known whether this assistance was provided. Once in power, Za'im made several key decisions that benefited the United States. He approved the Trans-Arabian Pipeline (TAPLINE), an American project designed to transport Saudi Arabian oil to Mediterranean ports. Construction of TAPLINE had been delayed due to Syrian intransigence. Za'im also improved relations with two American allies in the region:

Israel and Turkey. He signed an armistice in 1949with Israel, formally ending the 1948 Arab-Israeli Warand he renounced Syrian claims to Hatay Province, a major source of dispute between Syria and Turkey. Za'im also cracked down on local communists. However, Za'im's regime was short-lived. He was overthrown in August, just four and a half months after seizing power.[8][9][10][11]

 

Iran 1953

1953 Iranian coup d'état

See also: Tudeh Party and Iran hostage crisis

In 1953, the CIA worked with the United Kingdomto overthrow the democratically elected government of Iranled by Prime MinisterMohammad Mossadeghwho had attempted to

nationalizeIran's petroleum industry, threatening the profits of the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, now known as BP.[12] Declassified CIA documents show that Britain was fearful of Iran's plans to

nationalize its oil industry and pressed the U.S. to mount a joint operation to depose the prime minister and install a puppet regime.[13]In 1951 the Iranian parliamentvoted to nationalize the petroleum fields of the country.[13][14]The coup was led by CIA operative Kermit Roosevelt, Jr.(grandson of President Theodore Roosevelt). With help from British intelligence, the CIA planned, funded and implemented Operation Ajax.[15] In the months before the coup, the UK and U.S. imposed a boycott of the country, exerted other political pressures, and conducted a massive covert propaganda campaign to create the environment necessary for the coup. The CIA hired Iranian agents provocateurswho posed as communists, harassed religious leaders and staged the bombing of one cleric's home to turn the Islamic religious community against the government. For the U.S. audience, the CIA hoped to plant articles in U.S. newspapers saying that ShahMohammed Reza Pahlevi's return to govern Iran resulted from a homegrown revolt against what was being represented to the U.S. public as a communist-leaning government. The CIA successfully used its contacts at the Associated Press

to put on the newswire in the U.S. a statement from Tehran about royal decrees that the CIA itself had written.[13] Tehran men celebrating the 1953 Iranian coup d'état

The coup initially failed and the Shah fled the country. After four days of rioting, Shi'ite-sparked street protests backed by pro-Shah army units defeated Mossadeq's forces and the Shah returned to power.[16] Supporters of the coup have argued that Mossadegh had become the de factodictator of Iran, citing his dissolution of the Parliament and the Supreme Court, and his abolishment of free elections with a secret ballot, after he declared victory in a referendum where he claimed 99.9% of the vote.[17]

Darioush Bayandor has argued that the CIA botched its coup attempt and that a popular uprising, instigated by top Shi'ite clerics such as Grand Ayatollah Seyyed Hossein Borujerdi and Abol-Ghasem Kashani(who were certain that Mosaddegh was taking the nation toward religious indifference, and worried that he had banished the Shah), instigated street riots to return the Shah to power four days after the failed coup.

[16] After the coup, the Shah introduced electoral reforms extending suffrage to all members of society, including women. This was part of a broader series of reforms dubbed the White Revolution.[18] However, the Shah also carried out at least 300 political executions, according to Amnesty International.[19] The CIA subsequently used the apparent success of their Iranian coup project to bolster their image in American government circles. They expanded their reach into other countries, taking a greater portion of American intelligence assets based on their record in Iran.[16]In August 2013 the CIA admitted that it was involved in both the planning and the execution of the coup, including the bribing of Iranian politicians, security and army high-ranking officials, as

well as pro-coup propaganda.[20][21]The CIA is quoted acknowledging the coup was carried out "under CIA direction" and "as an act of U.S. foreign policy, conceived and approved at the highest levels of government."[22]The National Security Archive

said it that while it "applauds the CIA’s decision to make these materials available, today’s posting shows clearly that these materials could have been safely declassified many years ago without risk of damage to national security."[20]

 

Guatemala 1954

1954 Guatemalan coup d'état

The Guatemalan Revolutionof 1944-54 had overthrown the US backed dictator Jorge Ubico and brought a democratically elected government to power. The government began an ambitious agrarian reformprogram attempting to grant land to millions of landless peasants. This program threatened the land holdings of the United Fruit Company, who lobbied for a coup by portraying these reforms as communist. The CIA engineered the overthrow of the democratically elected government of Jacobo Árbenz, and installed the military dictator Carlos Castillo Armas. A decades long civil war ensued in which some 200,000 people were killed, mostly by the US backed military.[23][24][25][26][27]

 

Tibet 1955–70s

According to the 14th Dalai Lama, the CIA supported the Tibetan independence movement "not because they (the CIA) cared about Tibetan independence, but as part of their worldwide efforts to destabilize all communist governments".[28]

Main article:

CIA Tibetan program

The CIA armed an anti-Communist insurgency for decades in order to oppose the invasion of Tibet by Chinese forces and the subsequent control of Tibet by China. The program had a record of almost unmitigated failure.[29] According to the 14th Dalai Lama, the CIA supported the Tibetan independence movement "not because they (the CIA) cared about Tibetan independ ence, but as part of their worldwide efforts to destabilize all communist governments". [28] The budget figures for the CIA's Tibetan program were as follows: agents." "Agents in the Ba’th Party headquarters in Baghdad had for years kept Washington au courant on the party’s personnel and organization, its secret communications and sources of funds, and its penetrations of military and civilian hierarchies in several countries.... CIA sources were in a perfect position to follow each step of Ba’th preparations for the Iraqi coup, which focused on making contacts with military and civilian leaders in Baghdad. The CIA’s major source, in an ideal catbird seat, reported the exact time of the coup and provided a list of the new cabinet members.... To call an upcoming coup requires the CIA to have sources within the group of plotters. Yet, from a diplomatic point of view, having secret contacts with plotters implies at least unofficial complicity in the plot."[35] Qasim was aware of U.S. complicity in the plot and continually denounced the U.S. in public. The U.S. Department of State was worried that Qasim would harass US diplomats in Iraq because of this. The CIA was aware of many plots in Iraq in 1962, not just the one that succeeded.[36]

The best direct evidence that the U.S. was complicit is the memo from Komer to President Kennedy on February 8, 1963. The last paragraph reads: "We will make informal friendly noises as soon as we can find out whom to talk with, and ought to recognize as soon as we’re sure these guys are firmly in the saddle. CIA had excellent reports on the plotting, but I doubt either they or UK should claim much credit for it."[37]

 

Democratic Republic of the Congo 1960–65

Main article:

Congo Crisis

In 1960, the Democratic Republic of the Congo became independent from Belgium, and Patrice Lumumba became its first prime minister.[38] The new country quickly became embroiled in a civil war, with the regions of Katangaand South Kasaideclaring their independence. Lumumba sought assistance from the Soviet Unionto put down the rebellions. Fearing a communist takeover of the country, the CIAwas authorized by US president Dwight Eisenhowerto assassinate Lumumba; however, these plans were never carried out.[39][40] In 1964, the MaoistSimba Rebellion(Swahili for "Lions") broke out. In early 1965 Marxist revolutionary Che Guevaratraveled to Congo to offer his knowledge and experience as a guerrilla to the insurgents. Guevara led the Cuban operation in support of the Marxist Simba movement. Guevara, his second-in-command Victor Dreke, and 12 other Cuban expeditionaries arrived in the Congo on 24 April 1965 and a contingent of approximately 100 Afro-Cubans joined them soon afterward.[41][42]

They collaborated for a time with guerrilla leader Laurent-Désiré Kabila, who had previously helped supporters of Lumumba lead an unsuccessful revolt months earlier. White South African mercenaries, led by Mike Hoarein concert with Cuban exiles and the CIA, worked with the Congo National Army to thwart Guevara in the mountains near the village of Fizion Lake Tanganyika. They were able to monitor his communications and so pre-empted his attacks and interdicted his supply lines. Despite the fact that Guevara sought to conceal his presence in the Congo, the U.S. government was aware of his location and activities. The CIA assisted the operation, carried out by U.S. and Belgian forces, to rescue hundreds of European hostages held by the Simba forces.[43] On 25 November 1965, just five days after Guevara's departure,Joseph Mobutuseized power with the help of the political and military support of Western countries, including the U.S.[44]

 

Dominican Republic 1961

See also: CIA transnational human rights actions § Trujillo

The CIA supported the overthrow of Rafael Trujillo, President/Dictator of the Dominican Republic, on 30 May 1961.[45] Trujillo has been described as one of the worst dictators in the Americas. In a report to the Deputy Attorney General of the United States, CIA officials described the agency as having "no active part" in the assassination and only a "faint connection" with the groups that planned the killing,[46]but the internal CIA investigation, by its Inspector General, "disclosed quite extensive Agency involvement with the plotters."[47]

 

South Vietnam 1963

Main articles:

Cable 243, 1963 South Vietnamese coup and arrest and assassination of Ngô Đình Diệm

The body of Diệm in the back of the APC, having been killed on the way to military headquarters

The CIA backed a coup against President Ngô Đình Diệmof South Vietnam.

Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr., the US ambassador to South Vietnam, refused to meet with Diệm. Upon hearing that a coup d'étatwas being designed by Army of the Republic of Vietnam

(ARVN) generals led by General Dương Văn Minh, Lodge gave secret assurances to the generals that the U.S. would not interfere. Lucien Conein, a CIA operative, provided a group of South Vietnamese generals with ,000 to carry out the coup with the promise that US forces would make no attempt to protect Diệm. Dương Văn Minhand his co-conspirators overthrew the government on 1 November 1963 in a swift coup. On 1 November, with only the palace guard remaining to defend Diệm and his younger brother, Nhu, the generals called the palace offering Diệm exile if he surrendered.

However, that evening, Diệm and his entourage escaped via an underground passage to Cholon , where they were captured the following morning, 2 November. The brothers were assassinated together in the back of an armoured personnel carrierwith a bayonet and revolver by Captain Nguyễn Văn Nhungwhile en route to the Vietnamese Joint General Staff headquarters.[48]Diệm was buried in an unmarked gravein a cemetery next to the house of the U.S. ambassador.[49]Upon learning of Diệm's ouster and death, Hồ Chí Minhreportedly said, "I can scarcely believe the Americans would be so stupid."[50]

Coordinadora to develop a coherent electoral strategy." [99]Ultimately, the U.S. administration's public and private support for non-participation allowed those members of the Coordinadora who favoured a boycott to gain the upper hand.[99]Others have disputed this view, claiming that "the Sandinistas' decision to hold elections in 1984 was largely of foreign inspiration".[100]The U.S. continued to pressure the government by illegally arming the Contra insurgency. On October 5, 1985 the Sandinistas broadened the state of emergency begun in 1982 and suspended many more civil rights. A new regulation also forced any organization outside of the government to first submit any statement it wanted to make public to the censorsip bureau for prior censorship.[101]

As the Contras' insurgency continued with U.S. support, the Sandinistas struggled to maintain power. They lost power in 1990, when they ended the state of emergency and held an election that all the main opposition parties competed in. The Sandinistas have been accused of killing thousands by Nicaragua's Permanent Commission on Human Rights.[102] The Contras have also been accused of committing war crimes, such as rape, arson, and the killing of civilians.[103] The New York Timessurveyed voters on the 1990 election:"The longer they [Sandinistas] were in power, the worse things became. It was all lies, what they promised us" (unemployed person); "I thought it was going to be just like 1984, when the vote was not secret and there was not all these observers around" (market vendor); "Don't you believe those lies [about fraud], I voted my conscience and my principles, and so did everyone else I know" (young mother); "the Sandinistas have mocked and abused the people, and now we have given our vote to [the opposition] UNO" (ex-Sandinista officer).[104]

 

Since the end of the Cold War

Iraq 1992–96

See also:

Iraq Liberation Act

According to former U.S. intelligence officials interviewed by The New York Times, the CIA indirectly supported a bomb and sabotage campaign between 1992 and 1995 in Iraq conducted by the

Iraqi National Accord insurgents, led byIyad Allawi. The campaign had no apparenteffect in toppling Saddam Hussein's rule.[105] According to former CIA officerRobert Baer, various rebel groups were attempting to oust Hussein at the time. No public records of the CIA campaign are known to exist, and former U.S.officials said their recollections were in many cases sketchy, and in some cases contradictory. "But whether the bombings actually killed any civilians could not be confirmed because, as aformer CIA officialsaid, the United States had no significant intelligence sources in Iraq then."In 1996, Amneh al -Khadami, who described himself as the chief bomb maker for the Iraqi National Accord, recorded a videotape in which he talked of the bombing campaign and complained that he was being shortchanged money and supplies. Two former intelligence officers confirmed the existence of the videotape. Mr. Khadami said that "we blew up a car, and we were supposed to get ,000" but got only ,000, as reported in 1997 by the British newspaperThe Independent , which had obtained a copy of the videotape.[105][106]

U.S. and Iraqi sources provided an account of the unsuccessful strategy of deposing Saddam by a coup d'état during the 1990s, an effort reportedly known within CIA by the cryptonym "DBACHILLES".[107] According to theWashington Post,[108] the CIA appointed a new head of its Near East Division, Stephen Richter, who assumed that large parts of the Iraqi army might support a coup. A team met with Gen.Mohammed Abdullah Shawani,[108]a former commander of Iraqi Special Forces, and a Turkmen from Mosul. As the CIA was drafting its plans, the British encouraged the agency to contact an experienced Iraqi exile named Ayad Alawi, who headed a network of current and former Iraqi military officers and Ba'ath Party operatives known as wifaq, the Arabic word for "trust".According to the Association of Former Intelligence Officers, DBACHILLES succeeded in reaching a number of senior Iraqi military officers, but was compromised and collapsed in June 1996. The Iraqis began arresting the coup plotters on June 26. At least 200 officers were seized and more than 80 were executed, including Shawani's sons.[107]

 

Venezuela 2002

Main article:

2002 Venezuelan coup d'état attempt

In 2002, Washington is claimed to have approved and supported a coup against the Venezuelan government. Senior officials, including Special Envoy to Latin America Otto Reich and convicted Iran-contra figure and George W. Bush "democracy 'czar'" Elliott Abrams , were allegedly part of the plot.[109] Top coup plotters, including Pedro Carmona, the man installed during the coup as the new president, began visits to the White House months before the coup and continued until weeks before the putsch. The plotters were received at the White House by the man PresidentGeorge W. Bush tasked to be his key policy-maker for Latin America, Special Envoy Otto Reich.[109]

It has been claimed by Venezuelan news sources that Reich was the U.S.

mastermind of the coup.

[110]

Bush Administration officials and anonymous sources acknowledged meeting with some of the

planners of the coup in the several weeks prior to April 11, but have strongly denied encouraging

the coup itself, saying that they ins

isted on constitutional means.

[111]

Because of allegations, Sen.

Christopher Dodd

requested a review of U.S. activities leading up to and during the coup

attempt. A

U.S. State Department

Office of Inspector General

report found no "wrongdoing" by

U.S. officials either in the State Department

or in the U.S. Embassy.

[112]

According to

The New

Yor

k Times

, documents revealed by pro

-

Chavez activist

Eva Golinger

"do not show that the

United States backed the coup, as Mr. Chávez has charged. Instead, the documents show that

Ame

rican officials issued 'repeated warnings that the United States will not support any

extraconstitutional moves to oust Chávez'".

[113]

 

Iraq 2002–03

 

Main articles:

 

Iraq War

and

Operation Viking Hammer

See also:

Lead

-

up to the Iraq War

The CIA's

Special Activities Division

teams were the first U.S. forces

to enter Iraq, in July 2002,

before the main

invasion

. Once on the ground, they prepared for the subsequent arrival of

U.S.

Army Special Forces

to organize the

Kurdish

Peshmerga

. This joint team (called the Northern

Iraq Liaison Element (NILE)

[114]

combined t

o defeat

Ansar al

-

Islam

, a group with ties to al

-

Qaeda, in Iraqi Kurdistan. This battle was for control of the territory that was occupied by Ansar

al

-

Islam and took place befo

re the invasion. It was carried out by Paramilitary Operations

Officers from SAD and the Army's

10th Special Forces Group

.

This battle resulted in the defeat

of Ansar and the capture of a

chemical weapons

facility at Sargat.

[114]

Sargat was the only facility

of its type discovered in the Iraq war.

[115]

[116]

SAD teams also co

nducted missions behind enemy lines to identify leadership targets. These

missions led to the initial

air strikes

against Hussein and his generals. Although the strike against

Hussein

was unsuccessful in killing him, it effectively ended his ability to

command and control

his forces. Strikes against Iraq's generals were more successful and signific

antly degraded the

Iraqi command's ability to react to, and maneuver against the U.S.

-

led invasion force.

[114]

[117]

SAD

operations officers were also successful in convincing key

Iraqi Army

officers into surrendering

their units once the fighting started.

[115]

NATO

member

Turkey

refused to allow the U.S. forces across its territory into

northern Ir

aq

.

Therefore, joint SAD and Army Special forces teams and the Peshmerga were the entire

Northern force against the Iraqi army. They managed to keep the northern divisions in place

rather than allowing them to aid their colleagues against the U.S.

-

led coal

ition force coming from

the south.

[118]

Four of these CIA officers were awarded the

Intelligence Star

for their actions.

[115]

[116]

 

Iran 2005–present

 

President

George W. Bush

authorized the CIA to undertake

black operations

against Iran in an

effort to destabilize the Iranian government.

[119]

A 2005 article in the

New York Times

stated that

the

Bush ad

ministration

was expanding efforts to influence Iran's internal politics with aid to

opposition and pro

-

democracy groups abroad and longer broadcasts criticizing the Iranian

government. Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs R. Nicholas Burns said

the

administration was "taking a page from the playbook" on

Ukraine

and

Georgia

. Unnamed

administration officials were reported as saying the State Department was also studying dozens

of proposals for spending million in the coming year "for the benefit of Iranians living inside

Iran" including broadcast activities, Internet progr

ams and "working with people inside Iran" on

advancing political activities there.

[120]

In 2006, the United States congress passed

the

Iran Freedom and Support Act

, which directed

million towards groups opposed to the Iranian government. In 2007,

ABC news

reported that

President Bush had authorized a 0 million covert operation to create unrest in Iran.

[121]

According to the

The Daily Telegraph

, the CIA has also provided support to a militant

Sun

ni

organization called

Jundullah

, which has launched raids into Iran from its base in Pakistan.

[119]

Alexis Debat

separately claimed that the US encouraged Pakistan to support Jundullah, but his

reporting was challenged a

fter he was discovered to have allegedly fabricated numerous

interviews.

[122]

Seymour Hersh

, writing in

The New Yorker

, alleged that the US has provided

funding and training to the

People's Mojahedin Organization of Iran

and

Party for a Free Life in

Kurdistan

, militant groups opposed to the current Iranian government.

[123]

[124]

Prior to 2012, the

U.S. State Department had listed the PMOI as a terrorist organizaion, despite the absence of any

confirmed terrorist a

cts committed by the group in more than a decade.

[125]

 

Somalia 2006–07

 

See also:

 

War in Somalia (2006-present)

 

Although the United States has had an ongoing interest in

Somalia

for decades, in early 2006 the

CIA began a program of funding a coalition of anti

-

Islamic warlords.

[126]

This involved CIA case

workers funneling payments of hundreds of thousands of dollars to the

Alliance for the

Restoration of Peace and Counter

-

Terrorism

against the

Islamic Court Union

. Although the ICU

was locally supported for having restored a relative level of peace, some concern had been

expressed about their treatment of women and strict interpretation of Islamic law.

[127]

Syria 2012

present

[

edit

]

Main article:

Syrian civil war

In 2012, President

Barack Obama

a

uthorized U.S. government agencies to support forced regime

change in Syria.

[128]

In July 2012, the

Office of Foreign Assets Control

authorised channeling

financial support for the

Free Syrian Army

through the

Syrian Support Group

, a non

-

governmental organization based in

Washington, D.C.

.

[129]

In April 2013, the Obama

administration promised to double non

-

lethal aid to the

rebels, from US3 million to US0

million, thus attaining the goal of US billion in total international aid.

[130]

In June 2013, the

White House

confirmed that the U.S. has "stepped up" its assistance to Syrian

rebels.

[131]

While the State Department was in charge of providing non

-

lethal aid to the rebels, the

Central Intelligence Agency

(CIA) was tas

ked with the supply and delivery of weaponry and

other lethal equipment.

[132]

By early September 2013, the Obama administration considered

pu

tting

The Pentagon

in charge of arming and training Syrian rebel forces because the CIA's

previous training program was too limited and too slow.

[133]

In October 2013, the CIA ramped up its clandestine effort to train opposition fighters in Syria

amid concern that moderate, U.S.

-

backed militias are rapidly losing ground

in the country’s civil

war. The program is aimed at increasing the fighting power of units aligned with the

Supreme

Council

of the Syrian Revolution

, an umbrella organization led by a former Syrian general that is

the main recipient of U.S. support.

[134]

The CIA has run the training at bases in

Qatar

,

Jordan

and

Saudia Arabia

since about August 2013.

[135]

[136]

[137]

See also

[

edit

]

·

American imperialism

·

Foreign policy of the United States

·

Kirkpa

trick Doctrine

·

Overseas interventions of the United States

·

United States Foreign Military Financing

·

United States and state

-

sponsored terrorism

·

United States involve

ment in regime change

·

United States military aid

·

United States support of authoritarian regimes

References

[

edit

]

Constructs such as

ibid.

,

loc. cit.

and

idem

are

discouraged by

Wikipedia's style

guide

for footnotes

, as they are easily broken. Please

improve this article

by

replacing

them with

named references

(

quick guide

), or an abbreviated title.

(December 2010)

1.

^

Jump

up

to:

a

b

Weart, Spencer R. (1998).

Never at War

. Yale University Press. pp.

221

224, 314.

ISBN

978

-

0

-

300

-

07017

-

0

.

2.

Jump

up

^

Humanities and Social Sciences On

-

Line,

Review of book by David S. Foglesong, America's

Secret War Against Bolshevism: U.S. Intervention in the Russian Civil War, 1917

1920

3.

Jump

up

^

D

avid S. Foglesong,

America's Secret War Against Bolshevism: U.S. Intervention in the

Russian Civil War 1917

1920

, Chapter 5, "American Intelligence Gathering, Propaganda and Covert

Action in Rev

olutionary Russia"

4.

Jump

up

^

The National Archives, Prologue Magazine, Winter 2002, Vol. 34, No. 4,

"Guarding the

Railroad, Taming the Cossacks The U.S. Army in Russia, 1918

1920"

5.

Jump

up

^

Robert L. Willett,

Russian Sideshow: America's Undeclared War, 1918

1920

, p. 9

6.

Ju

mp

up

^

"CIA slipped bugs to Soviets"

.

Washington Post

.

NBC

. Retrieved

2008

-

11

-

21

.

7.

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"The Farewell Dossier"

.

Central Intelligence Agency

. Retrieved

2008

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11

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21

.

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Douglas Little (1990). "Cold War and Covert Action: The United States and Syria, 1945

1958".

Middle East Journal

44

(1).

JSTOR

4328056

.

9.

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"1949

1958, Syria: Early Experiments in Cover Action, Douglas Little, Professor, Department

of History, Clark University"

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-

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.

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Gendzier, Irene L. (1997).

Notes from the Minefield: United States Inte

rvention in Lebanon

and the Middle East, 1945

1958

. Columbia University Press. p.

98

. Retrieved

February 13,

2012

. Recent

investigation... indicates that CIA agents Miles Copeland and Stephen Meade..were directly involved in the

coup in which Syrian colone

l Husni Za'im seized power. According to then former CIA agent Wilbur

Eveland, the coup was carried out in order to obtain Syrian ratification of TAPLINE.

11.

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up

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Gerolymatos, André (2010).

Castles Made of Sand: A Century of Anglo

-

American Espionage

and Intervention in the Middle East.

. Thomas Dunne books (MacMillan)

. Retrieved

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uary 13,

2012

.

Miles Copeland, formerly a CIA agent, has outlined how he and Stephen Meade backed Zaim, and

American archival sources confirm that it was during this period that Meade established links with

extremist right

-

wing elements of the Syrian army,

who ultimately carried out the coup.

12.

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up

^

The New York Review of Books

,

"A Crass and Consequential Error,"

reviewing the book

Patriot of Persia: Muhammad Mossadegh and a Tragic Anglo

-

American Coup

by

Christopher de

Bellaigue

, 16 August 2012.

13.

^

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a

b

c

"Special Report: Secret History of the CIA in Iran"

.

New York Times

. 2000.

14.

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"Country Studies: Iran"

.

Library of Congress

. Retrieved

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2007

.

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Muhammad

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16.

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b

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Bayandor, Darioush

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.

Palgrave Macmillan.

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.

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"Trying to Persuade a Reluctant Shah"

.

The New York Times

.

18.

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up

^

I Knew the Sh

ah

-

Part 2

on

YouTube

Al Jazeera English.

January 17, 2009.

19.

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up

^

Washington Post, March 23, 1980.

20.

^

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up

to:

a

b

CIA finally admits it masterminded Iran’s 1953 coup

21.

Jump

up

^

CIA admits role in 1953 Iranian coup

22.

Jump

up

^

In declassified docum

ent, CIA acknowledges role in '53 Iran coup

23.

Jump

up

^

Nick Cullather, with an afterword by

Piero Gleijeses

"Secret History: The CIA's Classified

Account of Its Operations in Guatemala, 1952

1954"

.

Stanford University Press

, 2006.

24.

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up

^

Piero Gleijeses

.

"Shattered Hope: The Guatemalan Revolution and the United States, 1944

1954"

.

Princeton University Press

, 1992.

25.

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Stephen M. Streeter.

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1954

1961"

.

Ohio University Press

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Gordon L. Bowen.

"U.S. Foreign Policy

toward Radical Change: Covert Operations in

Guatemala, 1950

1954"

.

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-

102.

27.

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Stephen Schlesinger

(3 June 2011).

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.

The New York Times

.

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a

b

Mann, Jim (15 S

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.

The Los Angeles Times

. Retrieved

8 September

2013

. In his 1990 autobiography, "Freedom in Exile," the

Dalai Lama explained that his two brothers made contact with the CIA during a trip to India in 1956. The

CIA agreed to help, "not because they cared about Tibetan independence

, but as part of their worldwide

efforts to destabilize all Communist governments," the Dalai Lama wrote.

29.

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up

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Conboy, Kenneth and Morrison, James,

The CIA's Secret War in Tibet

(2002).

30.

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d

Mann, Jim (15 September 1998).

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.

The Los Angeles Times

. Retrieved

8 September

2013

.

The budget figures for the CIA's Tibetan program are

contained in a memo dated Jan. 9, 1964. It was evidently written to help justify continued funding for the

clandestine intelligence operation. "Support of 2,100 Tibetan guerrillas based in Nepal: 0,00

0," the

document says. "Subsidy to the Dalai Lama: 0,000." After listing several other costs, it concludes:

"Total: ,735,000." The files show that this budget request was approved soon afterward.

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"Chapter 1: January 1961

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.

Aga.nvg.org

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2011

.

33.

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Cou

ghlin, Con

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.

Harper Perennial

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25.

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5

.

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Senate Select Committee on Intelligence (20 November 1975), "C. Institutionalizing

Assassination: the "Executive Action" capabilit

y",

Alleged Assassination Plots involving Foreign Leaders

,

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181

35.

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Harry Rositzke, The CIA’s Secret Operations: Espionage, Counterespionage, and Covert

Action (Boulder, CO: 1977), 109

110.

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Kennedy Library, "Telegram from Department of State to Embassy Baghdad of February 5,

1963," National Security Files, Countries, Box 117, Iraq 1/63

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2/63.

37.

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JFK Library, Memorandum for The President from Robert W. Komer, February 8, 1963 (JFK,

NSF, Countries, Iraq, Box 117, "Iraq 1/63

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38.

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http://www.eisa.org.za/WEP/drc1960results.htm

39.

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"CIA assassination attempt on Lumumba"

. Retrieved

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2011

.

40.

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"Senate Church Committee on Lumumb

a"

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10

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09

.

41.

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Gálvez 1999, p. 62.

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Gott 2004 p. 219.

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Fontova, Humberto. Exposing the Real Che Guevarra. Sentinel, 2007.

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"Obituary: Mobutu Sese Sok

o"

.

The Independent

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45.

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Frank, Mitch.

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Time Magazine.

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Justice Department Memo, 1975;

National Security Archive

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Blanton, William (editor), ed. (8 May 1973),

Memorandum for the Executive Secretary, CIA

Management Committee. Subject: Potentially Embarrassing Agency Activities

, George Washington

University National Security Archives Electronic Briefing Book No. 222, "The CIA's Family Jewels"

48.

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up

^

The Pentagon Papers

, Vol. 2 Ch. 4

"The Overthrow of Ngo Dinh

Diem, May

November,

1963", pgs. 201

276,

49.

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G. Herring,

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Moyar, pg. 286

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192. Telegram From the Army Attaché in Brazil (Walters) to

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198. Telegram From the Department of State to the Embassy in Brazil

. Washington, March 31,

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187. Telegram From the Ambassador to Brazil (Gordon) to the Department of State

Rio de

Janeiro, March

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54.

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Lincoln Gordon m

udou a história do Brasil, diz historiador americano

55.

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Botwe

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Asamoah, Kwame (2005).

Kwame Nkrumah's politico

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cultural thought and policies

:

an African

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centered paradigm for the second phase of the African revolution

. New York [u.a.]: Routledge.

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16, 46, 62, 143, 146, 148, 219.

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0415948339

.

56.

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Oglesby, Charles (1970).

Containment and

Change

. Macmillan Company. p.

105.

57.

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up

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Interview with

John Stockwell

in

Pandora's Box

: Black Power

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Adam Curtis

,

BBC Two

, 22

June 1992)

58.

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up

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John Prados,

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emocracy: The Secret Wars of the CIA

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p. 329.

59.

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Christopher Andrew and Vasili Mitrokhin,

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Battle for the Third World

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c

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Kornbluh, Peter (2003).

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.

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Axelsson, Sun

Chili, le Dos

sier Noir. (Chile: The Black File)

Paris

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87

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Hussain, Rizwan (2005).

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109.

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Meher, Jagmohan (2004).

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.

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Alejandro Colás; Richard Saull (2006).

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.

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4

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2013

.

66.

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Jay, Paul

, and Zbigniew Brzezinski,

The Afghan war and the 'Grand Chessboard' Pt 2

,

The

Real News

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ry 15, 2010 at 1:50 to 6:10.

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Alterman, Eric

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Kalinovsky, Artemy M. (2011).

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.

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"INTERVIEW WITH DR ZBIGNIEW BRZEZINSKI

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(13/6/97)"

. Gwu.edu

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18

.

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Barlett, Donald L. (2003

-

05

-

13).

"The Oily Americans"

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08

-

18

.

71.

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^

Interview with Dr. Zbigniew Brzezinski

(13/6/97). Part 2.] Episode 17. Good Guys, Bad

Guys. June 13, 1997.

72.

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^

Bergen, Peter. Holy War, Inc. New York: Free Press, 2001. Pg.66

73.

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The New Republic, "TRB FROM WASHINGTON, Back to Front" by Peter Beinart, October

8, 2001.

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Hartung, William D. (October 27, 2006).

"We Arm The

World"

.

TomPaine.com

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.

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Jason Burke, Al

-

Qaeda (Penguin, 2003), p59.

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Christopher Andrew and Vasili Mitrokhin, The Mitrokhin Archive II: The KGB and the World

(Penguin, 2006), p579n48.

77.

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Steve Coll, Ghost Wars: The Secret History of the CIA, Afghanistan and Bin Laden (Penguin,

2004), p87.

78.

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up

^

Peter Bergen, The Osama bin Laden I Know (Free Press, 2006), pp60

-

1.

79.

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"Charlie Wilson's War Was Really America's War," by Michael Johns

, January 19, 2008.

80.

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^

Alternative Türkeihilfe, Militärs an der Macht

(An alternative aid for Turkey, Military in

Power) Herford (Germany), August 1983, pg.6.

81.

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up

^

Birand, Mehmet Ali.

12 Eylül, Saat: 04.00

, 1984, pg. 1

82.

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^

Hear Paul Henze say it:

Fethullahçı Gladyo

on

YouTube

8m20s in.

83.

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Balta, Ibrahim. "

Birand’dan Paul Henze’ye ‘sesli

görüntülü’ yalanlama

,"

Zaman

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84.

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"Paul Henze ‘Bizim çocuklar yaptı’ demiş"

.

Hürriyet

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14.

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Gil, Ata. "La Turquie à marche forcée,"

Le Monde diplomatique

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MacEachin, Douglas J.

"US Intelligence and the Polish Crisis 1980

1981."

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2008.

87.

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u

p

^

Cover Story: The Holy Alliance By Carl Bernstein Sunday, June 24, 2001

88.

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Branding Democracy: U.S. Reg

ime Change in Post

-

Soviet Eastern Europe Gerald Sussman,

page 128

89.

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^

Rainer Thiel in "Nested Games of External Democracy Promotion: The

United States and the

Polish Liberalization 1980

-

1989" page 273

90.

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hael Reisman

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Executive Secrets: Covert Action and the Presidency William J. Daugherty. page 201

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203

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Empowering Revolution: America, Poland, and the End of the Cold War By Gregory F.

Domber page 110

93.

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Leogrande, Leonard M, "Making the Economy Scream: US economic sanctions against

Sandinista Nicaragua" (Third World Quarterly, Vol. 17, No. 2), pp 340.

94.

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Gilbert, Dennis

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ICJ (NICARAGUA v. UNITED STATES OF AMERICA)

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"Nicaragua's role in revolutionary internationalism"

.

U.S. Department of State Bulletin

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.

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.

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"BBC ON THIS DAY | 5 | 1984: Sandinistas claim election victory"

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.

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Martin Kriele, "Power and Human Rights in Nicaragua", German Comments, April 1986, pp.

56

57, 63

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986)

99.

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Williams, Philip J. “Elections and democratization in Nicaragua: the 1990 elections in

perspective.” Journal of Interamerican Studies 32, 4:13

34 (winter 1990). p16

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Cornelius, Wayne A. “The Nicaraguan elections of 1984: a reassessment of their domestic and

international significance.” Drake, Paul

W. and Eduardo Silva. 1986. Elections and democratization in

Latin America, 1980

85. La Jolla: Center for Iberian and Latin American Studies, Center for U.S.

Mexican Studies, Institute of the Americas, University of California, San Diego. P. 62.

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Chamorro Cardenal, Jaime (1988).

La Prensa, A Republic of Paper

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John Norton Moore, The Secret War in Central America (University Publications of America,

1987) p. 143 n. 94 (2,000 killings); Roger

Miranda and William Ratliff, The Civil War in Nicaragua

(Transaction, 1993), p. 193 (3,000 disappearances); Insight on the News, July 26, 1999 (14,000 atrocities).

103.

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The Catholic Institute for International Relations (1987). "Right to Survive: Human Rights in

Nicaragua" (print). The Catholic Institute for International Relations.

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09).

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Wurmser, David (1997

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b

Association of Former Intelligence Officers (19 May 2003),

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,

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Ignatius, David (May 16, 2003), "The CIA And the Coup That Wasn't",

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Vulliamy, Ed (2002

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.

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Tu

cker, Mike; Charles Faddis (2008).

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Behind lines, an unseen war, Faye Bowers,

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Woodward, Bob

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Shipman, Tim,

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Steven R. Weisman (2005

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Carter, Bill,

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Hersh, Seymour,

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Mark Mazzetti

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Timberg, Craig (2006

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Hosenball, Mark (August 1, 2012).

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Rozen, Laura (July 27, 2012).

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David Brunnstrom (21 April 2013).

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David S. Cloud and Raja Abdulrah

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Ernesto Londoño and Greg Miller (12 September 2013).

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. Retrieved

3 October

2013

.

133.

Jump

up

^

ADAM ENTOUS and JULIAN E. BARNES.

"U.S. Considers Stepping Up Rebel Support"

.

The Wall Street Journal

. Retrieved

3 October

2013

.

The Obama administration is considering putting the

Pentagon in charge of arming and training moderate rebel forces in Syria, a move that could help expand

the effort significantly beyond the limited scope of the current Central Intelligence Agency program

, U.S.

officials said.

134.

Jump

up

^

Greg Miller (5 October 2013).

"CIA ramping up covert training program for moderate Syrian

rebels"

.

The Washington Post

. Retrieved

3 October

2013

.

135.

Jump

up

^

Frank Gardner

(13 November 2014).

The Missing Students

.

From Our Own Correspondent

(BBC Radio 4). Event occurs at 11:41

. Retrieved

14 November

2014

.

136.

Jump

up

^

"Syrian Rebels Describe U.S.

-

Backed Training in Qatar"

.

FRONTLINE

(Public Broadcasting

Service). 26 May 2014

. Retrieved

14 Nove

mber

2014

.

137.

Jump

up

^

Raf Sanchez (3 September 2013).

"First Syria rebels armed and trained by CIA 'on way to

battlefield'"

.

The Daily Telegraph

. Retrieved

14 November

2014

.

Further reading

[

edit

]

Books

[

edit

]

·

Ranelagh, John

(1986).

The Agency

. Weidenfeld and Nicolson.

ISBN

9780297790266

.

·

Andrew, Christopher

(1996).

For the President's Eyes Only: Secret Intelligence and the

American

Presidency from Washington to Bush

. HarperCollins.

ISBN

9780060921781

.

·

Chomsky, Noam

(2002).

What Uncle Sam Really Wants

. The Real Story Series (1st ed.).

Odonian Press.

ISBN

978

-

1878825018

.

·

Richard Helms

; William Hood (8 April 2003).

A Look Over My Shoulder: A Life in the

Central Intelligence Agency

. Random House Publishing Group.

ISBN

978

-

1

-

58836

-

309

-

1

.

·

Kinzer, Stephen

(2006).

Overthrow: America's Century of Regime Change from Hawaii

to Iraq

. Times Books.

ISBN

978

-

0

-

8050

-

78

61

-

9

.

·

John Prados (14 September 2006).

Safe for Democracy: The Secret Wars of the CIA

. Ivan

R. Dee.

ISBN

978

-

1

-

61578

-

011

-

2

.

·

Weiner, Tim

(2008).

Legacy of Ashes: The History of the CIA

(1st Anchor Books ed.).

New York: Anchor Books.

ISBN

978

-

0307389

008

.

External links

[

edit

]

·

"Part II...Overthrow: America's Century of Regime Change from Hawaii to Iraq"

May 8,

2006

Democracy Now!

·

CIA Responds to a Critic

·

Sins of Omission and Commission

·

The CIA's "Family Jewels"

·

Kinzer on National Public Radio

 

 

 

Tässä osa sivusta toisella sivustolla:

 

Covert United States Foreign Regime Change Actions

Lähteet:

https://wikispooks.com/wiki/US_Efforts_to_Suppress_Democracy_since_1945

 

 

US Efforts to Suppress Democracy since 1945

 

 
Concept.png US Efforts to Suppress Democracy since 1945
US Democracy suppression.jpg
Start 1945

This does not include US Bombing campaigns since 1945.

Contents

Countries where the US has attempted to overthrow a democratic government

The US has attempted to overthrow more than 50 national governments, most of them being popular/democratic rather than tyrannical.[1] While bombings with aircraft leave evidence in most cases, covert operations may be difficult to prove.

Date Country Details Disputed?
1973 Category:Chile The CIA sabotaged Allende's first election in 1964, and failed to do so in 1970 (when they also tried to kill him). The military was encouraged to be hostile and in Sept 1973 the government was overthrown, Allende dying in the process. The generals closed the country to the outside world for a week, tanks rolled, soldiers broke down doors, stadiums rang with the sounds of execution and bodies piled up along the streets and floated in the river. More than 3,000 were executed, thousands more tortured or disappeared.[2][3][4][5][6][7][8] No
1970 Category:Italy CIA support for failed Golpe Borghese coup in Italy. The military attaché at the US embassy was allegedly connected to the coup organizers and one of the accused claimed that US President Richard Nixon had followed the preparations for the coup.[9] A Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request by Italian newspaper La Repubblica in December 2004 confirmed this.[10] Maybe
1964 Category:Brazil Operation Brother Sam. The extent of CIA involvement unverifiable since some documents remain classified, but the US provided logistic support to the rebels and dispatched an aircraft carrier (USS Forrestal), two guided missile destroyers and four destroyers which to Brazil under the guise of a military exercise[11]. The rule of democracy was replaced with a line of military dictatorships for the next 21 years, whom the US supported until at least the late 1970s. No
1961 Category:Greece CIA-backed military coup ushers in Regime of the Colonels in Greece.  ??
1953 Category:Guyana From 1953-64, the UK and the US went to great lengths to prevent a democratically elected leader of British Guiana/Guyana from governing. Cheddi Jagan had tried to remain neutral and independent and was elected three times. Using a variety of tactics including general strikes and disinformation to terrorism and British legalisms, the U. S. and Britain finally forced Jagan out in 1964. John F. Kennedy had given a direct order for his ouster, as, presumably, had Eisenhower. One of the better-off countries in the region under Jagan, Guyana, by the 1980s, was one of the poorest. Its principal export became people.[2]  ??
1953 Category:Iran In 1951 the Iranian parliament voted to nationalize the Iran's petroleum industry, threatening the profits of the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company. Declassified CIA documents show that Britain was fearful of Iran's plans to nationalize its oil industry and pressed the U.S. to mount Operation Ajax to depose the prime minister and install a puppet regime. Elected Prime Minister Mohammad Mossadegh and his government were replaced by the Shah (overthrown 26 years later).[12][13][14][15][16][17] No
1949 Category:Syria CIA helps overthrow the democratically elected government of Syria, bringing in the dictatorship of Husni al-Za'im. Wikipedia says "carried out with discreet backing of the American embassy".  ??

Countries where the US has attempted to suppress a populist or national movement

The US has has attempted to suppress a populist or national movement in 20 countries.[1] Covert operations may be difficult or impossible to prove.

Date Country Details Disputed?
1975 Category:South America Operation Condor was a campaign of political repression and terror involving assassination and intelligence operations officially implemented in 1975 by right-wing dictatorships in South America. The program aimed to eradicate alleged socialist and communist influence and ideas and to control active or potential opposition movements against the participating governments.[18] Due to its clandestine nature, the precise number of deaths directly attributable to Operation Condor is highly disputed. It is estimated that a minimum of 60,000 deaths can be attributed to Condor,[19] possibly more.[20][21][22] Condor's key members were the governments in Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, Paraguay, Bolivia and Brazil. The United States provided support, with Ecuador and Peru joining later in more peripheral roles.[23] No
1961 -
1963
Category:Ecuador President José María Velasco Ibarra was overthrown by a military coup, replaced with his vice-president Carlos Julio Arosemana, who in turn was overthrown in 1963 and replaced by a more consistently anti-Communist military junta.[24][25]  ??
1961 -
1962
Category:Cuba Attempts to overthrow Fidel Castro, The Cuban Project, Operation Mongoose, Operation Northwoods No
1946 -
1949
Category:Greece Intervened in a civil war, taking the side of the neo-fascists against the Greek left which had fought the Nazis courageously. The neo-fascists won and instituted a highly brutal regime, for which the CIA created a new internal security agency, KYP. Before long, KYP was carrying out all the endearing practices of secret police everywhere, including systematic torture.[2]  ??

Countries where the US has seriously interfered in democratic elections

The US has seriously interfered in democratic elections in at least 30 countries.[1] Covert operations may be difficult or impossible to prove.

 

  1.  

    References

    1.  
  2. The World War on Democracy One of more than 50 attempts to assassinate foreign leaders (but no listing) Global Research, John Pilger Jan 19, 2012, citing William Blum's "updated summary of the record of US foreign policy". Since the Second World War" of July 2011.
  3.  
  4. A Brief History of U.S. Interventions 1945 to the Present by William Blum - Z magazine, June 1999.
  5.  
  6. Secretary of State Colin L. Powell Interview On Black Entertainment Television's Youth Town Hall U.S. Department of State.
  7.  
  8. [http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB8/nsaebb8i.htm Chile and the United States: Declassified Documents Relating to the Military Coup, September 11, 1973. National Security Archive.
  9.  
  10. CIA Acknowledges Ties to Pinochet’s Repression Report to Congress Reveals U.S. Accountability in Chile National Security Archive.
  11.  
  12. New Transcripts Point to US Role in Chile Coup.
  13.  
  14. The Kissinger Telcons National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 123 National Security Archive.
  15.  
  16. Documents reveal U.S. funding for Chile coup CNN.com.
  17.  
  18. Enquêtes sur la droite extrême, Le Monde-éditions, 1992, p.84. Cited by Wikipedia.
  19.  
  20. Il golpe Borghese. Storia di un'inchiesta, La storia siamo noi, Rai Educational, cited by Wikipedia.
  21.  
  22. Kornbluh, Peter. BRAZIL MARKS 40th ANNIVERSARY OF MILITARY COUP GWU National Security Archive. Retrieved August 20, 2007.
  23.  
  24. Special Report: Secret History of the CIA in Iran New York Times. 2000.
  25.  
  26. An Anti-Democracy Foreign Policy: Iran Future Freedoms Foundation.
  27.  
  28. "Country Studies: Iran". Library of Congress, March 7, 2007.
  29.  
  30. "Muhammad Mosaddeq and the 1953 Coup in Iran". Edited by Mark J. Gasiorowski and Malcolm Byrne. Syracuse University Press, 2004.
  31.  
  32. "U.S. Comes Clean About The Coup In Iran". CNN Insight, April 19, 2000 (transcript of video).
  33.  
  34. "U.S. Ending A Few Of The Sanctions Imposed On Iran", New York Times, March 18, 2000. Secretary of State Madeleine K. Albright: "’In 1953 the United States played a significant role in orchestrating the overthrow of Iran's popular prime minister, Mohammad Mossadegh’"
  35.  
  36. Shock Doctrine Naomi Klein, Picador, 2007.
  37.  
  38. Editoriales - Operacion Condor Victor Flores Olea. El Universal, Mexico 10 April 2006.
  39.  
  40. Centro de Documentación y Archivo para la Defensa de los Derechos Humanos 25 June 2007.
  41.  
  42. Tracking the Origins of a State Terror Network: Operation Condor. J. Patrice McSherry 2002 Latin American Perspectives, vol 29, iss 1, p.36-60.
  43.  
  44. 2006: el ocaso de los "cóndores mayores" La Nación (Chile) 13 December 2007.
  45.  
  46. Predatory States. Operation Condor and Covert War in Latin America/When States Kill. Latin America, the U.S., and Technologies of Terror Journal of Third World Studies 2006.
  47.  
  48. Post-transition Ecuador 2000 An essay in honor of Martin needler1 Journal of Political and Military Sociology, 2005.
  49.  
  50. Ecuador 1960 to 1963: A Textbook of Dirty Tricks William Blum.

Rahaeliitin tavoitteista kerrotaan dokumentoidusti dokumenttielokuvassa Thrive (2011). 65 Yli 70 miljoonaa katsojaa 27 kielellä. Elokuva alkaa hitaasti, mutta tulet huomaamaan, kuinka aiheet liittyvät toisiinsa:

 

Pizzagate: Kansainvälisen pedofiilirinkiskandaalin päivityksiä

Ennen kuin tutkit tätä aihetta "teollisuuden" tarjoamaa materiaalia käyttäen lue tämä sivu:

Facebook, Google, Wikipedia ja Youtube

Päivitys 21.11.2017:

Nobelin rauhanpalkinnon kandidaatti 2017 Robert David Steele:

Kirja nyt netissä ilmaiseksi:

Pedophilia & Empire: Satan, Sodomy, & The Deep State – Chapter 1: Introduction to Pedophilia – The Mental Disorder and the Child Sex Abuse Crime

Thefreethoughtproject 15.11.2017: Congresswoman: Taxpayers Have Paid MILLION to Silence Sexual Abuse Victims of Congress members Kansanedustaja: Veronmaksajien rahoista on maksettu miljoonia dollareita kansanedustajien harjoittaman seksuaalisen väkivallan uhreille

Päivitys 29.8.2017:

Hakukone jonka kautta löydät teollisuuden piilottamaa ja sensuroimaa tietoa (myös tästä) aiheesta:

http://goodgopher.com/SearchResults.asp?query=pizzagate&pr=GG

Päivitys 16.8.2017:

Pizzagate.com -sivusto on todennäköisesti hakkereiden kynsissä. Perehdy aiheeseen, niin tiedät miksi.

Yournewswire 2.7.2017: NBC: Hillary Clinton Threatened Staff Over State Dept. Pedo Ring Story Hillary uhkaili henkilökuntaansa pedofiilikohuun liittyen (jossa hän siis itse on mukana)

Yournewswire 15.8.2017: Male Prostitute Found Murdered At Home Of Clinton Aide Prostituoitu mies löytyi murhattuna Hillaryn avustajan kotoa

Oma Pizzagate-uutisointimme alkoi tästä.

Päivitys 5.8.2017:

Yournewswire3.8.2017: Justin Bieber: Pedophiles Run The ‘Evil’ Music Industry Justin Bieber: Pedofiilit pyörittävät musiikkiteollisuutta

Päivitys 17.7.2017:

Avtivistpost 16.7.2017: Child Sex Trafficking in the US is Exploding, Govt Admits They Aren’t Stopping It Lapsikauppa Yhdysvalloissa räjähtää, viranomaiset antavat sen jatkua

Päivitys 10.5.2017:

Yournewswire 30.4.2017: Former Navy SEAL: 3000 Elite Pedophiles Arrested – Media Silent

Activistpost 8.5.2017: Colossal Pedophile Ring Busted, 900 Arrests, 300 Kids Saved — Corporate Media Ignores It

Neonnettle 30.4.2017: Pedofilian on vahvistettu olevan pääsyvaatimus johtaviin asemiin yhteiskunnassa

Päivitys 19.4.2017:

Neonnettle 19.4.2017: Pedogate: Two of trey Gowd's investigators vanish amid pedophile investigation

Päivitys 15.4.2017:

Anonews 13.4.2017: Human Trafficker Admits To Killing Over 400 Children In Video Confession

The Star 12.4.2017: More than 100 UN peacekeepers ran a child sex ring in Haiti. None were ever jailed

Ilta-Sanomat 7.4.2011: Lestadiolaiset myöntävät seksuaaliset hyväksikäytöt

Päivitys 5.4.2017:

Veteran Navy Seals Launch Operation To Bust Pedophile Rings

Dr Phil canceled after exposing elite pedophile ring on tv show

Breeder Babies, Satanic Child Trafficking Exposed by Former Hollywood Insider- Jon Robberson Interview

Päivitys 2.4.2017:

Pedofiili-Podesta haluaa immuniteetin Hillaryä vastaan todistamisesta

Montanan roomalaiskatolinen seuraskunta vararikkoon pedofilia-korvausten vuoksi

John Podesta Requests Immunity For Testimony Against Hillary Clinton

Read more at: http://www.neonnettle.com/news/2014-john-podesta-requests-immunity-for-testimony-against-hillary-clinton
© Neon Nettle

Päivitys 29.3.2017:

Theeventchronicle 27.3.2017: First Democrat Official Tied To Elite Pedophile Ring Pleads Guilty (VIDEO)

Päivitys 20.3.2017:

Neonettle 19.3.2017: Bush antoi presidenttinä ollessaan potkut agenteille, jotka tutkivat Pedogatea

Neonettle 18.3.2017: Kansanedustaja lupaa saada vastuuseen eliittipedofiilit

Kaksi Clintoneita ja pedofiliaa tutkinutta tapettu:

Päivitys 19.3.2017:

Pizzagate mielenosoitus Washingtonissa 25.3.2017:

 

Päivitys 14.3.2017:

Titus Frostin Pizzagate osa 3:

Yle: Jehovan todistajat eivät muuta tuhatvuotista sääntöään, joka jättää pedofiilin ilman rangaistusta

Päivitys 2.3.2017:

Ivanka Trump: Dad Is Destroying DC Pedo Network

Watching Pizzagate Researchers Get Sandy Hooked

Päivitys 27.2.2017:

25.000 dollarin palkkio nostettiin 50.000 dollariin! Todista väitteet muun muassa Hillary Clintonin lasten hyväksikäyttöön sekaantumisesta vääriksi - Wikileaksin dokumentit tukena

Päivitys 24.2.2017:

Trump piti lehdistötilaisuuden 23.2: Ihmiskauppa kuriin ( = Pizzagate )

Koottuja uutisia aiheesta tässä

Dailymail 18.2.2017: Sir Edward Heath WAS a paedophile, says police chief: Astonishing claim is made that the former PM is guilty of vile crimes 'covered up by the Establishment' 

Päivitys 21.2.2017:

Neonettle 19.2.2017: High profile pedophiles arrested Isokenkäisiä pedofiilejä pidätetty

Yournewswire 19.2.2017: DHS Insider: CIA And Mossad Behind DC Pedo Ring Demokraattipuolueen ilmiantaja: CIA ja Mossad (Israel) Washingtonin pedofiiliringin takana

Pedogate: High-Profile Pedophiles Arrested In Latest Pizzagate Arrests

Read more at: http://www.neonnettle.com/features/738-pedogate-high-profile-pedophiles-arrested-in-latest-pizzagate-arrests
© Neon Nettle

Päivitys 16.2.2017:

Lisää Pizzagate-pedofiilien pidätyksiä? FBI pidättänyt jo poliitikkoja, ja ratsaa nyt pizzaravintoloita ja adoptiotoimistoja

Titus Frost update:

Päivitys 12.2.2017:

12.2.2017: 25.000 dollarin palkkio: Todista väitteet Hillary Clintonin lasten hyväksikäyttöön sekaantumisesta vääriksi - Wikileaksin dokumentit tukena

Davidicke 11.2.2017: Elijah Wood: Hollywood Is Run By A Powerful Elite Paedophile Ring Hollywood tähti sanoo: Hollywoodia pyörittävät vaikutusvaltaiset pedofiilit

ABC 12.2.2017: 108 arrested in Illinois in sex sting; 752 arrested across US 752 pidätetty Yhdysvalloissa poliisin "seksi-operaatiossa"

Päivitys 8.2.2017:

Yle 6.2.2017: 4 444 uhria – Australian katolisen kirkon lastenhyväksikäytön laajuus paljastui

Freethoughtproject 1.2.2017: Massive Child Sex Ring Busted in CA — 474 Arrested, 28 Children Saved

Päivitys 4.2.2017: Miksi viranomaiset eivät ole tutkineet Pizzagate -pedofiiliskandaalia?

Wikileaks twiittasi 17. tammikuuta:

https://twitter.com/wikileaks/status/821595404500430848

https://file.wikileaks.org/file/FBI-pedophile-symbols.pdf

Poikkeuksellisesti yhdysvaltalainen CBS näytti tämän (suomenkielinen tekstitys rattaasta):

Päivitys 15.1.2017:

15.1.2017: Tamperelaisen päiväkodin pedofiilijohtaja Meginness ja hänen poikansa saivat tuomion lapsipornon hallussapidosta

15.1.2017: One Hundred Children Accuse UN Peacekeepers Of Rape Sata lasta syyttää YK:n rauhanturvaajia raiskauksista

Päivitys 31.12.2016:

Linkki: Uutisia katolisten pappien lasten hyväksikäyttöön liittyen tässä (Kooste maailmalta, kymmeniä uutisia).

Washingtonexaminer 29.12.2016: California Democrats legalize child prostitution Kaliforniassa lapsiprostituutio laillista 1.1.2017 alkaen

Dailymail 8.8.2016: Poliisipäällikkö: Emme voi millään pidättää kaikkia pedofiilejä, heitä on niin monta

Päivitys 26.12.2016:

New York Times on poistanut palvelimeltaan kirjoituksensa Pedofiiliskandaalista viime kuussa Norjassa (Todennäköisesti N.Y.T. ei halua levittää tietoa aiheesta)

Suomalaisista medioista aiheesta kirjoittivat ainakin IL, IS, AL, MTV, SK, ESS, Lapin Kansa, Savon Sanomat, KSML, Kaleva, Ilkka ja Pohjalainen, joista Ilkka ja Pohjalainen ovat päättäneet poistaa artikkelin palvelimeltaan. Noilla kahdella aihetta "salailevalla" lehdellä tuntuu olevan sama omistajakin. Tutkimme aihetta.

New York Times 4.5.2014: Young Blood May Hold Key to Reversing Aging Nuori veri avain vanhentumisprosessin hidastamiselle

Päivitys 25.12.2016:

New Scientist 15.11.2016: Blood from human teens rejuvenates body and brains of old mice Teinien veri nuorentaa koehiiriä

Titus Frostin päivitysvideo Pizza-pedogate tässä.

Näyttää siltä että pedofiilien pidätykset alkavat, kun pedifiiliskandaaliin itse sekaantunut Obama ei voi ketään enää armahtaa, eli kun Trump astuu virkaan 20.1.2017

Päivitys 13.12.2016:

Wikipedia lukitsi Pizzagate-wikileaks-sivun tiedot. Sitä ei voi päivittää tai korjata! Nyt he ovat todella peloissaan, tämä aihe alkaa levitä ja kasvaa!

Päivitys 12.12.2016:

Dailymail 6.3.2016: British royalty dined on human flesh [already] 300 years ago (Brittikuningashuoneessa söivät ihmislihaa jo 300 vuotta sitten)

Former FBI Chief Exposes “Illuminati, Satanism, Pedophile Rings” (Entinen FBI-pomo paljastaa Illuminatin, saatananpalvonnan ja pedofiiliringit)

Etelä-Korean presidentti joutui eroamaan, syytteitä tulossa - harrasti muun muassa saatanan palvontaa

Iltalehti 12.12.2016: Uusikaarlepyyläisen koulun rehtori tänään käräjäoikeudessa kahdesta lapsen seksuaalisesta hyväksikäytöstä